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amorphous iron silicate scales

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amorphous iron silicate scales

2011-11-7 · Control of amorphous silica scale has proved more challenging, and in many cases, is limited to pH ... magnesium-iron silicate, silica, and metal sulfides. Metal silicate, silica, and metal sulfide scales are ... cycle. Once formed, magnesium-iron silicate scales are hard to remove even when hydrofluoric acid is employed.


2017-8-27 · silicate may continue to grow and form an amorphous ‘‘silica scale.’’ In the oilfield, different ratios of the two scales are likely forming in various wells as pH and cation concentrations differ. 4. Co-precipitation of silicate scale with other mineral scales, e.g., calcium carbonate If calcium is introduced


Iron silicate is the most prevalent scale deposited from Salton Sea geothermal brine during processing to recover its heat content. The scale has been characterized by elemental analysis and by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, Mossbauer and electron diffraction spectroscopy.


2014-10-30 · amorphous iron silicate with a stoichiometry similar to the mineral minnesotaite ((Fe++,Mg) 3Si4O10(OH)2). With the aid of computer programs for geochemical aqueous speciation (WATCH and EQ3NR) and for reaction path modelling of aqueous geochemical systems (EQ6), the geochemical constraints of the formation of the scales were modelled.


iron silicate dust grain analogs, in several sample preparations and at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K, across the infrared and millimeter portion of the spectrum (from 2.5 to 10,000 μ m or 4000 to 1 cm −1 ).


2017-7-21 · The microstructures of scales adhered to the inner walls of elbow steel pipes, used in the transport of hot spring water, are analyzed. ... amorphous magnesium silicate, aragonite, amorphous magnesium silicate, and iron corrosion products, on the carbon steel from the inside of the pipe to the outside. The corrosion product fully covers the ...


2001-3-16 · amorphous iron silicate (probably hisingerite) and poorly-crystalline, iron-rich nontronite, along with minor magnetite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Deeper scales deposited near flashpoints on cement-lined steel casing consist mostly of bismuth-, copper-, …


2015-2-13 · The outer layers of teeth are made up of nanowires of enamel that are prone to decay. Gordon et al. analyzed the composition of tooth enamel from a variety of rodents at the nanometer scale (see the Perspective by Politi). In regular and pigmented enamel, which contain different trace elements at varying boundary regions, two intergranular phases—magnesium amorphous …


2008-11-1 · A diopside composition silicate glass containing 8 wt% Fe 2 O 3 was prepared from melt equilibrated at 1500 °C and different redox conditions in the range logf O 2 = −0.7 (air) to logf O 2 = −6. The Fe 2+ /Fe T was measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer data were used to calibrate Raman-scattering intensity variations of the same samples as a function of oxidation state ...


2018-2-13 · Mg Silicate Ca 0.36 Na 0.56 Mg 0.81)(Mg 0.73 Si 0.27)Si 2 O 6 18 Magnetite Fe 3 O 4 2 Hydroxyapatite Ca 5 (PO 4) 3 (OH) 2 Amorphous 17 19.9 41.2 47.8 60 Chemical analysis showed all of the deposits to contain at least 40% Si. Our first study was with our existing chemistry which was 10% sodium hydroxide with 5% DPTA. This was compared


1989-1-1 · Iron silicate scale generally begins to form at a much higher temperature than that which would be expected to result in pure silica scale. Cations in the hypersaline brines decrease the solubility of silica (Marshall and Chen, 1982), but iron silicate still forms at as much as 50 higher than pure silica.


2021-7-19 · @article{osti_5386014, title = {Iron silicate scale formation and inhibition at the Salton Sea geothermal field}, author = {Gallup, D L}, abstractNote = {Iron silicate is the most prevalent scale deposited from Salton Sea geothermal brine during processing to recover its heat content. The scale has been characterized by elemental analysis and by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, Mossbauer ...


2008-5-28 · Control of silicate scales in steam flood operation Darrell Lynn Gallup ... silicate minerals become supersaturated. At supersaturation conditions, amorphous silica and metal silicates may deposit in heat exchangers. ... Iron in the silicate minerals appears to derive from transporting incompletely oxygen scavenged circulating water to the ...


2010-9-9 · case of iron sulfide scales, of various polymorphic phases, while ... Gallup (1989) reports that inhibition of the iron-silicate scales is achieved by reducing the brine by only 0.1 to 0.3 units. The injection of an acid into the can significantly ... ingly an amorphous precipitate prone to oxidation.


2016-3-31 · Fig. 2 Spatiotemporal distribution of ionic species in silica gardens. (A) Iron (squares), sodium (circles) and silicate (triangles) ion concentrations measured in the outer water glass reservoir at different times after completed preparation of Fe 3+-based silica gardens.Corresponding data for tubes prepared with FeCl 2 and CoCl 2 show essentially the same trends and are therefore omitted here.


2018-2-6 · Previous studies of ALH 77307 indicate that the amorphous component of its matrix is an iron-bearing silicate (Brearley, 1993; De Gregorio et al., 2016). Spectroscopically, the amorphous materials in least-processed CO matrices behave like other amorphous silicates, including impact and volcanic glasses, due to their structural similarity.


2021-4-19 · Silicate Scale Inhibitor Evaluation and Applications Haiping Lu; Haiping Lu Baker Hughes. Search for other works by this author on: This Site. Google Scholar. Ya Liu;


2010-9-9 · In addition to amorphous iron silicate, under certain brine processing conditions, other crystalline scale components may be observed. Brines reduced in temperature below about 150°C deposit barium sulfate and calcium fluoride. Copper arsenide and silver antimonide scales form on mild steel surfaces below about 125°Cand respectively.


2000-3-2 · eral types of amorphous silica scales were distinguished: 1. white fine-dispersed silicate powder (specific volume of pores is about 3.0 cm3/g)(AS1) ; 2. solid hard thin coating on the rock surface (is formed when pouring steam-and-water mixture into the surface) (AS2); 3. glass-like solid hard scales (AS3); 4. pinkish fragile uneven scales (two


2021-1-1 · Common inorganic scales tested include amorphous silica, magnesium silicate, aluminum silicate, iron (III) silicate, zinc sulfide, lead sulfide, iron (II) sulfide, and calcium carbonate. Against these scales, four interrelated methacrylate-structured polymers were tested as inhibitors, grafted either with polyethylene glycol (PEG), or phosphonic acid (PHOS) side-chains, or both.


2019-3-24 · ABSTRACT. Metal silicate deposits have been noted in several water treatment facilities, but they are more common in geothermal systems. Herein, chemical approaches for the inhibition of metal silicate formation will be presented, focusing on two silicate scales, namely, magnesium and aluminum silicate.


Iron silicate is the most prevalent scale deposited from Salton Sea geothermal brine during processing to recover its heat content. The scale has been characterized by elemental analysis and by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, Mossbauer and electron diffraction spectroscopy. Analysis of the scale characterization data assists in assigning a chemical structure and supports a proposed ...


2006-11-9 · amorphous or semi-amorphous silica or silicates. Empirical silica saturation curves and ... At East-Mesa (USA) pumped geothermal brines produced light iron carbonate and iron sulfide scales (GRASSIANI 1988) mostly protective against C. steel corrosion, while iron silicate was scarcely present on cooling to temperatures lower than 90°C. At the same


2013-5-22 · In particular, while results from Nuth et al. showed that pure, amorphous iron silicate grains condense from a mixed Fe–Mg–silicate vapor, the magnesium silicate grains anneal at much lower temperatures than the iron silicates. Therefore, iron silicate grains will remain amorphous for longer periods of time than the magnesium silicate grains.


Common inorganic scales tested include amorphous silica, magnesium silicate, aluminum silicate, iron (III) silicate, zinc sulfide, lead sulfide, iron (II) sulfide, and calcium carbonate.


2021-4-8 · However temperature has a strong influence on iron silicate formation. Indeed, iron/claystone or glass/iron/claystone experiments performed at 90 °C showed that serpentine formation occurs ...


2021-7-18 · 1 Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron diffraction and EPSR simulation Coralie Weigel,1 Laurent Cormier*,1 Georges Calas,1 Laurence Galoisy,1 and Daniel T. Bowron2 1Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Université Denis Diderot, CNRS UMR 7590, IPGP, 4 place


2010-9-10 · was observed that amorphous siliceous scales were formed in matter of months, as a result of the neutralization process. Also, similar scales formed inside separator, water tanks and pipelines located at the site of each well. The scaling problems were so severe that mechanical cleanings had to be performed every 6 months at PGM-07.


2000-3-2 · Formation of the amorphous silica solid scales in wells, separators, pipes and heat exchangers is the essential problem that makes difficult wide usage of geothermal re-sources. Various types of amorphous silica were selected at the Mutnovskoe field and their silicate, X-ray diffraction and thermochemical analyses were done. The possibility of


1997-8-1 · Chemical processes that control the deposition of iron silicate scales in commercial operations include brine pH modification and crystallization-clarification (Hoyer et al., 1991; Featherstone et al., 1995). Modification of pH at the Salton Sea, California geothermal field successfully inhibits iron silicate deposition by over 85%.


1998-6-12 · Iron- and aluminum-rich amorphous silica scales typically deposit at much higher temperatures and rates than pure amorphous silica scale. Thus, an improved understanding of iron- and aluminum-rich amorphous silica scale formation mechanisms, together with improved scale-inhibition technologies, are clearly needed in the geothermal industry.


2016-12-30 · 1 Nature and distribution of iron sites in a sodium silicate glass investigated by neutron diffraction and EPSR simulation Coralie Weigel,1 Laurent Cormier*,1 Georges Calas,1 Laurence Galoisy,1 and Daniel T. Bowron2 1Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Université Denis Diderot, CNRS UMR 7590, IPGP, 4 place


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