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the alkali soils of the middle niger valley origins

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the alkali soils of the middle niger valley origins

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the alkali soils of the middle niger valley origins

2009-6-2 · The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China were mainly analyzed from two aspects, natural and anthropogenic. Natural factors of alkalinization are parent materials, topographic positions, freeze-thaw action, wind conveyance, water properties and semi-arid/sub-humid climate. Some of them were always being neglected, such as freeze-thaw action and …


2013-11-20 · The alkali basalt composition of this crust is now ubiquitously distributed by impacts and wind-blown dust in all major Martian soils sampled by spacecraft landers 11,12,13,14,15. The observation ...


2012-6-1 · CHAPTER 1. Prehistoric Africa. In 1924, in a limestone cave near Taung, in South Africa's Cape Province, anthropologist Raymond Dart discovered the skull of a six-year-old creature which he named Australopithecus ('southern ape'). Although ape-like, Australopithecus exhibited human characteristics and had walked upright on two legs with a slight stoop. It was small, only about 1.25 …


2020-9-16 · On the shore at Bruichladdich, just outside the distillery, there are two types of the metamorphosed igneous rocks lying around for all to see. A pink-hued ex-granite so coloured because of the potassium feldspar in its mineral mix, and a green ex …


In some soils of the Niger valley, alkalinization and sodization are related to the concentration of alteration products of calco-alkaline gneiss to biotite, which releases significant amounts of ...


2015-1-29 · This paper reports on extremely thick and massive duricrusts in soils of two basins in the Alentejo (southern Portugal). Since different types of duricrusts (calcretes, silcretes and palycretes) have been reported from other regions in the Mediterranean, the purpose of this study was to identify the cementing agents in the duricrusts and to compare their composition in the two basins.


The formation of brown steppe soils and alkali soils may be explained by the existence of a former pond. This hypothesis is supported by aerial pictures and microscopic observations. It is also consistent with a recent study of the hydrology of sahelian ponds and with …


All these processes com- the regions Office du Niger in Mali (Bertrand et al., bined favour the increased dissolution of CaCO3 in 1993), Sourou valley in Burkina Faso (Barro et al., the soil and the decrease of soil alkalinity and sodicity 2000), Lossa in Niger (Marlet et al., 1998) and Foum as a function of time (Abrol et al., 1988; Ahmad et ...


2017-7-1 · Accordingly, in this paper we present and discuss geochemical results concerning the analysis of 32 elements from 72 samples of soil and sediment collected from the Nile River valley between Asyut and Cairo. The geochemistry of soils and sediments in this section of the Nile Valley has not been previously investigated. 2. Materials and methods2.1.


Nombreux exemples de traductions classés par domaine d'activité de “calcisol” – Dictionnaire anglais-français et assistant de traduction intelligent.


Republic, the regional development of irrigation along the river Niger is confronted with an large extension of alkali soils. The study of one of these areas, on the Liptako bedrock, reveals a concentric soil distribution: in a zone of brown soil with abrupt textural change and alkaline in depth (stagnic Solonetz), appears a ring of brown steppe soils (cambic Calcisol), and zones of alkali soils (Solonetz).


The alkali soils of the middle Niger Valley Origins, formation and present evolution ... the regional development of irrigation along the river Niger is confronted with a large extent of alkali ...


2005-2-1 · The alkali soils of the middle Niger valley: origins, formation and present evolution Geoderma , 84 ( 1998 ) , pp. 323 - 343 Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus Google Scholar


Origins and development of rice. Download. Origins and development of rice. Cristina Castillo. Dorian Fuller. Cristina Castillo. Dorian Fuller. Related Papers. 2 Evidence for a late onset of agriculture in the Lower Yangtze region and challenges for an archaeobotany of rice. By Emma Karoune.


Niger, officially Republic of Niger, French République du Niger, landlocked western African country. It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali. The capital is Niamey. The country takes its name from the Niger …


The rock art of Congo is situated in the middle Niari valley. Africa is extremely rich in prehistoric archaeological remains. These include the extraordinary geological deposits of eastern Africa, where many important human fossils have been discovered, as well as …


Les sols alcalinise´ s sur socle dans la valle´ e du fleuve Niger origines de l’alcalinisation et e´volution des sols sous irrigation. Travaux et Documents Microe´ dite´ s 138 (F5), The`se, ORSTOM, Paris. Barbie´ ro, L., van Vliet-Lanoe, B., 1998. The alkali soils of the middle Niger valley: origins…


At lower abundances than on Mars, perchlorate is reported from deserts of West Texas [Dasgupta et al., 2005] and Bolivian playas [Orris et al., 2003], as well as in carbonates of the upper Eocene Mission Valley Formation of San Diego [Duncan et al., 2005] and …


The first evidence from the middle valley of the Ogooue is around 2,600-2,500 B.P. at Otoumbi 2 and Lope 5, but it was not until around 2,300-2,100 B.P. that the Okanda tradition expanded, to the Otoumbi 4, Okanda 2 and 5, and Lindili 1 sites. The arrival …


The secondary level of our scheme is based upon the alkali–lime classification of Peacock (1931). Peacock separated volcanic suites into four classes according to the alkali–lime index, that is, the SiO 2 content at which Na 2 O + K 2 O in a suite of lavas equalled CaO. Those suites that have an alkali–lime index >61 are calcic, those ...


2013-10-16 · This specific distribution of soil units observed in the Niger valley, in Niger, raises the question of their origin, which is the first objective of this paper. The main difference between the two soil types (alkali soil and brown steppe soil) is that the soil solution is more concentrated in the alkali soils, although they are non-saline.


The alkali soils of the middle Niger valley : origins, formation and present evolution . By Laurent Barbiéro and B. Van Vliet-Lanoe. ... The formation of brown steppe soils and alkali soils may be explained by the juxtaposition of two contrasted hydrological regimes in a former pond. This hypothesis is supported by aerial pictures and ...


The alkali soils of the middle Niger Valley Origins, formation and present evolution ... with a large extent of alkali soils. For a sound management of the irrigated area, it appears necessary to ...


The origins of alkali vegetation linked to pastures, low sensitivity to disturbance, and quick regeneration potential of alkali vegetation are emphasised in relation to nature conservation.


1998-7-1 · A similar association was studied in the middle valley of the river Niger (in Niger Republic) to understand the origins and the present evolution of alkali soils. The soil distribution (brown steppe soils and alkali soils) probably inherited from former mesomorphology which includes a pond, arise from two hydrological regimes in contrast.


1998-7-1 · The alkali soils of the middle Niger valley: Origins, formation and present evolution


The detailed study of this contact demonstrates a present transformation of alkali soils into brown steppe soils. Therefore, it appears that soil alkalization is no longer in process on the terraces of the river Niger. The formation of brown steppe soils and alkali soils may be explained by the existence of a former pond.


2021-2-9 · Conductivity to mg/l: mg/l = 0.64 × EC x 10 3, or (EC in dS/m) mg/l = 640 × EC. for waters and soil extracts having conductivity up to 5 dS/m. nmol/l (chemical analysis) to mg/l: Multiply mmol/l for each ion by its molar weight and obtain the sum. …


(1) The water-cloud model was based on two assumptions, the uniform distribution of scattering particles of the vegetation layer and the negligence of the multiple scattering between the vegetation layer and the soil surface; however, the grassland's interaction with bare, saline-alkali soil presented a very complicated landscape, which cannot be easily described by the water-cloud model.


The abrupt boundary between the brown steppe soils and the alkali soils is related with morphological and geochemical changes, resulting from calcite and fluorite precipitation in the soil solution.


2016-10-21 · Farther south, events moved more slowly, although both botanical and linguistic research indicates that domestication processes were trending in the direction of agriculture within several different zones during the period from 5,000 to 4,000 years ago ([3000-2000 BCE]. One zone followed the Sahel–savanna country stretching from the upper Niger River valley, through the Lake Chad basin, to ...


2021-6-22 · The alkali soils of the middle Niger Valley Origins, formation and present evolution Laurent Barbiéro 1,2 and Brigitte Van Vliet-Lanoe 3 1 - ORSTOM, BP 1386, Dakar, Sénégal. ([email protected]) correspondence 2 - INRA-ENSA, Unité de Science du sol et bioclimatologie, 65 rue de St Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France


2006-11-25 · Cambridge University Press 052181300X - Ancient Middle Niger - Urbanism and the Self-Organizing Landscape - by Roderick J. McIntosh Index. Index. Note: Locators for figures appear in italics. abandonment, 199 Jenne-jeno site, 177, 181, 199 Méma Basin, 177


2019-9-30 · miDDle niger in pre-AntiqUity [ 15 ] 0 200 400 600 km 0 100 200 300 400 miles Dia Jenne-jeno Timbuktu MEMA MASINA Akumbu Kolima SE AZAW AD SAHAR A R Ni g e r Ri v e r N i g e r R i v e r S e n eg a l R v e r K e l im b in e i v e r Gao Map 2: The Middle Niger Valley in Pre-Antiquity emergence of the first cities from 500 BCE to 400 CE. A focus ...


Udoh BT. Suitability of soils derived from sandstone and the Indian Society of Soil Science 2013; 61:167-178. beach sands for cashew (Anacardium occidentalis) and 3. Jackson ML. ‘Soil Chemical Analysis’. Prentice Hall of coconut (Cocos nucifera) cultivation in the Niger Delta India Pvt. Ltd.,


Therefore, it appears that soil alkalization is no longer in process on the terraces of the river Niger. The formation of brown steppe soils and alkali soils may be explained by the juxtaposition of two contrasted hydrological regimes in a former pond. This hypothesis is supported by …


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